A range of non-surgical procedures is available for treating wrinkles. Each type differs in how it reacts with the skin and other soft tissue on the face.
Muscle relaxants work by removing wrinkles that are still at formation stage by blocking nerve impulses to the muscles, which cause wrinkles. Available products contain the neurotoxin Botulinum Toxin Type A which is a prescription medication and must be injected under medical supervision.
Dermal fillers are injectables that help smooth fine lines and erase wrinkles, at least temporarily, by plumping up or volumising the skin. They may contain collagen, hyaluronic acid and other substances in microsphere form, with or without a collagen base.
Dermal stimulants stimulate the skin to produce new collagen. The skin, once injected, gradually begins to produce new collagen.
Fat transfer technique for wrinkle treatment involves fat harvested from a part of the body with ample fat deposits being purified and injected into areas that need enhancing. Fat removal is achieved through liposuction. Some of the injected fat may be reabsorbed into the body, causing an immediate volumising effect followed by a diminished result.
In laser resurfacing light of a specific wavelength is used to remove damaged or fine-wrinkled surface skin, exposing fresh skin underneath. Different frequencies of laser can be used to treat different types of skin damage.
Intense pulsed light technique uses a broad spectrum of light to stimulate the production of collagen in the skin. It is an effective method for smoothing wrinkles, removing sun damage and creating an even skin tone.
Microdermabrasion uses a diamond tip or fine crystals to remove dead skin cells from the top layer of skin. It is effective in treating fine lines and uneven skin colour. It is also useful for scar healing.
Vibraderm exfoliates and stimulates the production of natural collagen. It can be used to treat fine lines, poor skin texture, acne scars and clogged pores.
Chemical peels use chemicals like trichloroacetic acid or glycolic acid or a combination of ingredients to erase fine lines and treat discoloured skin, light freckles or scars and sun-damaged skin. The type of peel should be chosen to suit the treatment needed.
Oral products and supplements that contain antioxidants derived from plants, among other ingredients, are also used in treating wrinkles.
Topical applications marketed for treating wrinkles usually contain active antioxidants like Vitamins (A, C and E), alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) or beta hydroxy acid (BHA). They are generally used as part of a daily skincare routine.